景点旅游英语导游词范文

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洛阳英语导游词

LocatedinthewestofHenanProvinceincentralChina,Luoyangoccupiesquiteanimportantgeographiclocation.ItisinthemiddlereachesoftheYellowRiverandisencircledbymountainsandplains.ToitseastandwestaretheHuLaoPassandHanGuPasswhichwereessentialdomestictransportationjunctionsinancienttimes.Toitsnorth,MengjinCountywasanimportantferrycrossingoftheYellowRiver.Thus,Luoyangwasselectedasthecapitalcityby13dynastiesstartingfromtheXiaDynasty(21st-16thcenturyBC)inthe21stcenturyBC.IntheperiodfollowingtheHanDynasty(206BC-220),andparticularlyduringtheSui(581-618)andTand(618-907)dynasties,thecityexperiencedaperiodofgrowthandprosperityandrankedasoneoftheinternationalmetropolitansofthetime.

ItslonghistoryendowsLuoyangwithaprofoundsenseofculture.ThecityisthecradleofChinesecivilizationwheremanyChineselegendshappened,suchasNvwaPatchingtheSky,DayuControllingFloodandtheChineseancestorHuangdiEstablishingtheNation.ThecityisalsofamedasthePoetsCapitalaspoetsandliteratesofancientChinaoftengatheredthereandleftgrandworks,includingBookofWisdom(DaodeJing),HanHistory(HanShu)andAdministrativeTheoryofAdmonishingOfficial(ZiZhiTongJian).Religiouscultureoncethrivedhere.TaoismoriginatedthereandthefirstBuddhisttemplesetupbythegovernmentwaslocatedthere.LuoyangisalsothehometownofmanyofthescientificinventionsofancientChina,suchastheseismograph,armillarysphere,papermaking,printingandthecompass.

Luoyanghasrichhistoricalandculturalsites.TheLongmenGrottoesareoneofChinasthreemostprecioustreasurehousesofstonesculpturesandinscriptions.TheWhiteHorseTempleisthefirstBuddhisttempleandishonoredastheCradleofBuddhisminChina.Mt.Mangshaniswhereancienttombsofemperors,noblesandliteratesinthepastdynastiescollected.TheLuoyangAncientTombsMuseumistheworldsfirstexampleofthekindandpresentsthousandsoftreasuresdiscoveredinthetombs.ShaolinTempleistheplaceoforiginforChineseZenBuddhismandthecradleofChineseMartialArt.LandscapesinLuoyangholdthesameattractionastheculturalsites.WhiteCloudMountain,FuniuMountain,LongYuWanNationalForestPark,JiGuanLimestoneCaveandtheYellowRiverXiaolangdiScenicAreaareallworthavisit.Additionally,Luoyangisparticularlywellknownforitspeonies.EveryyearinApril,theflowersblossomandattracttouristsfromallovertheworld.DininginLuoyangisquiteanenjoyableexperience.Variouskindsoflocaldishes,includingWaterFeast,YanCaiandotherswhichusethefamousYellowRivercarpsasaningredient,togetherwiththeuniquelyflavoredsoups,willgreatlysatisfyyourtastebuds.LuoyangslocalspecialtiessuchasPalaceLanterns,bronzevesselsandTri-coloredglazedpotterieswillnodoubtdelightyoureyesandofferyouidealsouvenirs.Beingamoderncityaswell,Luoyanghashotelsofallstandardswhichprovideyouquiteabroadchoiceforyourstay.Mostofthehotelshavereasonableroompricesandperfectservices.

TransportationiswelldevelopedinLuoyang.BeijiaoAirporthasmanydomesticflightsextendingtomanylargecitiesinotherprovinces.ItsalsoveryeasytogettoLuoyangbytrainbecauseoneofChinasmostimportantrailwaylinesLongHaiRailwaytraversesthecityandconnectsmostcitiesineast,westandcentralChina.Theconvenientcitybusesandtaxiescancarryyouaroundthecity.Neartherailwaystation,specialtouristbusescantakeyoutothetouristspotsinthesuburbanareasofthecity.

Luoyang,acharmingcityfilledwiththefragranceofpeoniesandtheprimitiveatmosphereofancientcivilization,iswaitingandwelcomingguestsfromallovertheworld.PuttingthecityintothelistofyourexplorationinChina,youwillgetfarmorethanwhatyouexpect.

TheLongmenGrottos

TheLongmenGrottosareontheYiheRiverbank,some12kilometersfromancientLuoyangcity,about30minutesdrive.ItisoneofthethreemostimportantBuddhistsculpturesandcarvingsinChina.TheLongmenGrottosenjoyagoodlocationwheretwomountainsconfronteachotherbetweenwhichflowstheYiheRiver.

ThegrottowasfirstcarvedinNorthWeiDynasty,over1500yearsagoandexpandedthroughthesucceedingEastandWestWeiDynasties,NorthQiDynasty,NorthZhouDynasty,SuiandTangDynastiesandwasfinallycompletedinNorthSongDynasty.Over500yearsrenovationandexpansionhavecreatedtheprestigiousworldculturalsite.ThemostsignificantchiselingactivitieshappenedintheTangandNorthWeiDynasties,whichlastedover150years.

Spanningalengthofaround1kilometeronthehillsidealongtheYiheRiver,thenichesresembledozensofhoneycombsdottingthearea.Thereareabout2.100grottoesandniches,over40crematoryurns,3,600inscribedstonetabletsandover100,000Buddhistimagesandstatues.Thelargestoneis17metershighwhilethesmallestisatinyas2cm.OnethirdofthecomplexareworksoftheNorthWeiDynasty.ThesemasterpiecesaretheBinyangCave,andLianhua(LotusCave).TheimpressiveQianxiTemple,FengxianTemple,WanfoCave(TenThousandBuddhistCave)arethehighlightsoftheTangDynastscarvings.TheLongmenGrottosareofgreatvalueinworldsculpturehistoryandithasbeenlistedintheWorldCulturalHeritageSitebytheUNESCO.Toprotectsuchavaluableheritagesite,theChinesegovernmentaswellassomeinfluentialworldculturalorganizationsaretryinghardtosharethissitewiththewholeword.Alarge-scaledrenovationwasundertakenin20xxtokeepthegrottosingoodcondition.

WhiteHorseTemple

Locatedatthe12kilometerseastofLuoyangcity,theWhiteHorseTempleisoneoftheoldestBuddhisttemplesinChinaandisrenownedasthecradleofChineseBuddhism.AlthoughitisnotthelargestnorthemostbeautifulBuddhismmonumentinChina,thistemplewithitslargenumberofBuddhismitemshousedthere,iswellworthatrip.

AninterestinglegendrelatedtothetemplegoesthatawhitehorsecarriedthefirstBuddhistscriptfromIndiahereinancienttimehencethenameWhiteHorseTemple.HistoryrecordsthatthesitewasoriginaltheplaceusedbythesecondHanEmperor-LiuZhuangasasummerresortandforstudy.In68AD,whenBuddhismreacheditsheydayinIndia,twoIndianmonksbroughtBuddhistscripturestoLuoyangonthebackofawhitehorse.Theemperor,whowasadevoutBuddhismbeliever,builtthetempletohousethescripturesandnameditWhiteHorseTemple.Itwassaidthattherewereoncethousandsofmonkslivinginthetemple.ItwasevenusedasarefugeesanctuaryduringthesocialturmoilofWangMangintheEasternHanDynasty.

ThetwomonkswhobroughtscripturesfromIndiawereburiedhere.ManymonksfromoutsideChinahavevisitedthemonkandmanyofthemhavespenttherestoftheirtimeinthattemple.ThefamousTangDynastymonk-Xuanzangstartedhis17yearslongpilgrimagetriptoIndianfromthetemple.Afterreturning,XuanzhangbecametheabbotoftheWhiteHorseTemple,wherehedisseminatedthescripturesofBuddhismfortherestofhislife.

GuanlinTemple

云南英语导游词

WelcometoYunnan,WelcometoTengchong!It’smyhonortobeyourguide.TodaywearegoingtovisitthevolcanoesandhotspringsinTengchong,whicharethemostfamoushere.

Aswewillgetthereinafewminutes,firstallowmetogiveyouabriefintoductionofTengchong.TengchongislocatedinthesouthwestofChinaandoccupiesanareaof5800squarekilometers.Thereare23nationalitieshere,suchas汉、傣、回、白nationalitiesandsoon.WhenwementionedTengchong,threethingswillcomeintomind,whichare:thevolcanoesandhotspringshaving10,000years,thebordercityhaving1,000yearsandthefairofjadehaving100years.

Laterwewillgettothevolcanoesandthehotspring,sonowIcantellyousomethingaboutthelattertwoones.TheyallcanreflectthelonghistoryTengchonghas.Tengchongisacityonboarder.Andbecauseofitslocation,ithasbeenanimportantplaceformilitaryreasons.Andthat’sapartofitshistory.It’salsoregardedasthecountyofmanners,anditisthehometownofsomanyfamouspeople.AndanotherpartofitshistoryisthatTengchongisonetradecenterofjadebetweenChinaandBurma.Sodon’tforgettogetaroundtothejadefair.Ithinkyouwillfeelinterested.

OK,everyone,hereisth***oftheVolcanoes.Nowlet’shavealookat.ThevolcanoesinTengchongarefamousinChina,andit’soneofthefourgroupsofvolcanoesinChina.ThestrongextravasationsarethecauseofthelandformofTengchong.ThereisaliederinTengchongsayingthat:”SuchaplaceTengchong,nineintenmountainshavenopeaks.”It’sveryvivid,fromthatyoucanseesomanyvolcanoesareinTengchong.Thereare97volcanoesinTengchongnowwithhighvalueoftourismandscientificresearch.

Andnowlet’sgotoseetheyoungestvolcanoinTengchong,wecalledit“打鹰”Mountain,whichmeanshuntingeagles.Thisvolcanoliesinthecenterofthewholeplaceandstandsinaheightofmorethan2600meters.Itlookssheer,tallandstraight,justlikethefamousFujiinJapan.AndwealwaysconsiderittobeFujisecond.

Everyone,payattentiontothiskindofspecialstone.Itlookslikeaverybigstone,maybeit’stooheavytocarry.Andnowlookatme,Icanholditeasily.Aha,it’slight,lighterthanIthink.Thiskindofstonewecallit“浮石”,whichmeansakindofstonecanfloatonthewater.It’sformedbytheeruptingofthevolcanoes.

Everyone,pleasefollowme.Nowwewillgotoseethehotsprings.ThereareallkindsofhotspringsinTengchong,whichoccupyavastland.Whenyougothereyoucanseeavaporousworldjustlikeawonderland.Thetemperatureofthewaterisveryhigh.Ifyouputaneggintothehotspring,after10minutes,youcangetitoutandeatit.Ofcoursethetasteisgood,wouldyouliketohaveatry?

Ofcourseyoucanenjoynaturalbeautiesaswell.ThepearlSpringdropsbigandsmallbeadscontinuously,justlikethepearlscrawlingintheplate.And醉鸟Swell,whoesnamemeanslettingthebirdsgetdrunk,hasastrangefunction.Whentherearebirdsflyingaboveit,thebirdswillfalldownandfallasleep.It’sreallyinteresting.

Andaftervisitingthesewonderfulspots,wecanhavearest,andmaybesomeofyouwanttohaveabathinthehotspring.Isuggestyoudoso,becausethewaterherecancurediseasewhichbasedonmedicalreasons.

300hundredyearsago,afamoustravelernamed徐霞客camehereandwasoverwhelmedbythesceneryofVolcanoesandHotSprings,todaythesamesceneryovermasterus.

广东英语导游词(概况)

GuangdongProvince,borderingontheSouthChinaSea,islocatedinthesouthernmostofChina’smainland.ItadjoinsFujianProvinceontheeast,JiangxiandHunanprovincesonthenorthandGuangxiZhuangAutonomousRegiononthewest,withHongKongandMacoulyingtoitssouthrespectivelyontheeastandwestbanksofthePearlRiverestury.Itcoversanareaofabout180,000squarekilometersoflandand420,000squarekilometersofseawithatotalpopulationof94,500,000.

Locatedonthesubtropicalzone,Guangdongenjoysamildclimateandarichrainfall,withanaverageannualtemperateof22.3℃centigradeandarainfallof1,700mm.

WithGuangzhouasitscapital,GuangdongProvincenowhasjurisdictionover21prefecture-levelcities,amongwhichShenzhen,ZhuhaiandShantouarethethreeearliest

EconomicSpecialZonesopenedtotheoutsideworld.Fourprefecturalcities-Chaozhou,Meizhou,FoshanandZhaoqin-enjoyareputationof“NationalHistoricalandCulturalCity”.Moreover,therearestill19citiesorcountiesthathavebeenawardedwiththehonorabletitleof“NationalExcellentTourismCity”.

DuringthePre-Qinperiod,GuangdongareawasinhabitedbytheNanYueethnicpeople.QinunifiedSouthChinain219A.D.andsetupGuilin,XiangjunandNanhaiprefectures.Today’sGuangzhouiswheretheNanhaiPrefecturewaslocated.

AtthebeginningoftheWesternHanDynasy,aformerQincommandinggeneral,ZhaoTuobyname,foundedthefirstlocalstateinthepresentdayGuangdongarea,theKingdomofNanyue,thuspromotingthefusionbetweentheHanandtheYueethnicsandacceleratingthesocial,economicandculturalprogressinSouthChina.UndertheWuKingdomoftheThreeKingdomsperiod,theregiontothenorthofHepuwasnamedGuangzhou,whichruledtheNanhai,ChangwuandYulinprefectures.Hence,thenameof“Guangzhou”cameintobeing.Atthattime,China’sforeigntradechannelstartingfromPanyuwasestablished,whichistheoriginoftheMaritimeSilkRoad.

InMingDynasty,Guangdongbecameoneofthe13provinces.TheearlyQingDynastyinheritedMing’ssystemandsetupGuangdongProvince.Thenameof“Guangdong”wasofficiallyadopted.ThegovernmentofQingestablishedGuangdongCustomsinGuangzhou,whichisthefirstofficialestablishmentofcustomsinthehistoryofourcountry.ThelateQingDynastywitnessedthebirthofnationalcapitalismandnationalindustry,andthe“WesternizationMovement”inwhichtheChinesepeoplelearnedfromtheWestinsearchofaroadofwealthandpower.WithKangYouweiandLiangQichaoastheleadingexponents,theBourgeoisreformistswrotebookstodisseminatetheirideasandpopularizetheirreformistthoughts,whichwere

graduallydevelopedintoapoliticalpractice,andeventuallyledtoacapitalistreformmovement.GuangdongisalsotheoriginalplaceofChina’smodernrevolution.SunYat-senfromXiangshancountyledandfoundedthefirstbourgeoispoliticalpartyinChina:theTongMeng

Hui(RevolutionaryLeague).HeledtheHuanghuaGangUprising,theLaw-ProtectingMovementandalsosuccessfullyachievedtheFirstCooperationoftheCommunistPartyandtheKuomintang.SunYat-senwashonoredas“theForerunnerofDemocraticRevolution”and“FatheroftheRepublicofChina”.

Sincethe1980s,Guangdong,aplacepropitiousforgivingbirthtogreatmen,wasthefirstprovincetoopentotheoutsideworldandquicklybecameoneofthemosteconomically

developedregionsinChina,withanaveragepercapitaGDPexceeding4000USdollars.People’slivingstandardforthetimereachedthecomparativelywell-offlevel.GuangzhouTradeFairs,establishedin1957andheldineveryAprilandOctober,isknownasthe“NO.1ExhibitionofChina”.

ThePearlRiverDeltatodayhasattainedfruitfulattainments.Ithasenteredaneweraofvigorousdevelopment.

Inthelongprocessofhistoricaldevelopment,theuniqueLingnan(theareacoveringGuangdongandGuangxi)culturehasformedaftertheexchange,clash,andfusionofvariouscultures.InGuangdongProvince,thereexistthreegroupsofpeople:Guangfu,Chao-shan,Kakka,whicharecorrespondingtoGuangfuculture,Chao-shancultureandKakkaculturerespectively.TheGuangfugroupappearedtheearliest,whichlivesinthePearlRiverDeltaandsomeothercountiesandcitiesinthemiddleandwestpartofGuangdongProvince.TheKakkagroupcanbestreflectthefusionandtransformationbetweenLingnancultureandCentralPlainculture.ItisdistributedmainlyoverMeizhouregion.TheKakkashaveinheritedthefinetraditionfromtheCentralPlainculture,suchaspracticingfrugality,self-esteemandself-reliance,showingrespecttoteachersandattachinggreatimportancetoeducation.TheChao-shangroupmainlylivesinChaozhouandShantou.Chao-shanpeopleareadventurous,innovativeandingenious.Thesignificantfeaturedistinguishingthethreegroupsistheirdifferentdialects,thatis,the

“Baihua”(theplainlanguage)basedonGuangzhoudialect,theKakkalanguagebasedonMeizhoudialectandtheChao-shanlanguagebasedonShantoulocaldialect.TheminoritiesofGuangdongaredistributedmainlyinplaceslikeLiannanandRuyuandistricts.LocalcustomssuchastheGetang(theSingingMeet)andtheWoodenHandleLionofYaonationality,theEighthofAprilFestivalandtheOxKingBirthdayCelebrationofZhuangnationality,aswellastheThirdofMarchFestivalandtheSecondofFebruaryFestivalofShenationalityareofuniqueflavor.AsavehicleofLingnanculture,thearchitecturesinGuangdongarealsodistinctive.FolkbuildingsuniquetotheregionallpresentdistinctLingnancharacteristics,forexample,theXiguanbighouseandthearcadedbuilding,theHakkacircularhouses;buildingsofsocialinstitutions,suchastheTempleofSouthChinaSeaGod,FoshanAncestralTemple,theChenFamilyTempleandthePanyuAcademy;buildingsofworldculturalheritagesuchastheKaipingwatchtowers,andbuildingsforcitydefensesuchastheXinhuiYanmenartilleryfortandtheGuangzhouZhenhaiTower.TheLingnangarden,representedbyQinghuiGarden,KeGardenand

YuyinshanfangGarden,togetherwithNorthernGardenandSuzhouGarden,arereputedasthe“threemajorlandscapegardensinChina.”

ThefolkcultureofGuangdonghasstrongregionalfeatures.TheCantoneseOpera,ChaoOperaandOperaarelocallypopular.TheLingnanartofpottedlandscapeandbonsaiisnumberedasoneofthefivemajorstylesinthecountry.Folkdance,dragondance,liondanceanddragonboatingalldisplayspecialLingnanflavors.GuangdongEmbroidery,togetherwithSuzhouEmbroidery,HunanEmbroideryandSichuanEmbroidery,isknownasoneofthefourfamousembroideriesinChina.Guangdongceramics,consistingofGuangzhoudecorativeporcelain,ShiwanpotteryandFengxiearthenware,hadfoundamarketoverseasasearlyastheTang

Dynasty.ThedelicateandexquisiteGuangdongcarving,includingivorycarving,jadecarvingandwoodcarving,attainstounrivalledworkmanship.SpecialcraftsofGuangdong,suchasDuanInk-stoneinZhaoqing,paper-cutandlion-headmakinginFoshan,palm-leafhandicraftinXinhuiandlacquerwareinYangjiang,boastalonghistoryandextremelyhighcraftsmanship.

GuangzhoucuisineisoneofthefourmajorcuisinesinChina.AsaChinesesayinggoes,“toenjoythebestthatlifehastooffer,onehastoeatinGuangdong”.GuangdongcuisineconsistsofGuangzhou,ChaozhouandDongjiangdishes.Guangzhoudishesarecharacterizedbybeinglight,fresh,tender,tastyandcrisp.Theyareparticularaboutcolor,aroma,tasteandappearance.Chaozhoudishesexcelinseafood,andespeciallyinsoup.Dongjiangdishes,alsoknownas

Hakkadishes,usingmuchmeatsforpreparation,tendtobegreasyandslightlysalty.Ofthem,themostspecialistheearthenwarepotcasserole.Apartfromthefourmajordishes,thegreatvarietyoflocaldelicaciesalsoenjoysgreatfamealloverChina.

ThenaturaltourismresourcesofGuangdongarealsovariedandmany.Amongthem,thereisMountDanxia,namedWorldGeologyParkbyUNESCO;YangchunLingxiaoCaveand

ZhaoqingSeven-starCrags,knownfortheirkarstlandform;Ten-mileSilverBeachonHailingIslandinYangjiangthathasenteredtheGuinnessRecordforitsexpanse;Nansha

Newly-reclaimedWetlandParkinGuangzhou,alarge-scalewetlandreserveformangrove;

ConghuaHotspring,EnpingHotspringandZhuhaiImperialHotspring,alleffectiveinstimulatingbloodcirculationandrelaxingmusclesandjoints,providingskincareandkeepingfit;Seven-starCragsandMountDinghu,listedinthefirstnationalplacesofinterest;famouswaterfallssuchasPanlongGorgeWaterfallinDeqing,BaishuizhaiWaterfallinZengCheng,MaweiWaterfallatMountDaxia;otherspecialscenicspotssuchastheSmallThreeGorgesofXijiangRiver,theHuangtengGorgeDriftinginQingyuan,theundergroundriverinLianzhou,theJurenVillageatXiema,andLingnanWaterCountryatMinzhong;andalargenumberofforestparksincludingLiuxiRiverForestPart,MountXiqiaoForestParkNanlingNationalForestPark,NankunshanForestPark,andShimenForestBathingPlace…

GuangdongisamajortourismprovinceinChina.In20xx,itstourismincomewitnessedatotalof246.1billionRMByuan,accountingroughlyforonefourthofthegeneralnationaltourismincome.Overahundredmillioninboundtouristsvisitedtheprovinceinthisyear.With9.1billionUSdollarsofforeignexchangeearningsfromtourism,theprovincerankedfirstinthewholecountry.Accordingtothedatauptotheendof20xx,thereareover6,900touristrestaurants,410,000guestrooms,and770,000bedsinthewholeprovince.Guangdongiscurrentlymakinggreatstridesinbuildingastrongtourismprovince.

Withitslonghistory,splendidculture,specialfolkcustoms,abundanttouristresources,itsfirst-ratemoderntouristfacilitiesandhospitablepeople,theGuangdongoftodayissuretostrikeyouasmorethanworthavisit!

夕阳红 2022-07-26 00:53:41

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《创造亚当》的作者是米开朗基罗,于1511年至1512年创作的西斯廷礼拜堂天顶画,是《创世纪》的一部分。该壁画描绘的是《圣经·创世纪》中上帝创造人类始祖亚当的情形,按照事情发展顺序是创世纪天顶画中的第四幅。作为世界名画之一,后世出现了许多《创造亚当》的仿作。
《创造亚当》是根据创世纪第二章:“耶和华神用地上的尘土造人,将生气吹在他的鼻孔里,他就成了有灵的活人,名叫亚当,耶和华在东方立了一个伊甸园子,把所造的人安置在那里。”米开朗基罗为了集中注意力于大神的创造,以及亚当的诞生,便把神和亚当安量在左右两边的空中和陆地上。右边是耶和华大神,飞翔在空中,他左手抱着天使们,右手伸向亚当。亚当全身裸体,躺在左边的陆地上,一手伸向大神。神与人的手指象接电似的相互交流,这里表现了充满精力的老人和年轻而美丽的生命的诞生。体现了创造者的权威和被创造者的信心。
米开朗基罗画中亚当形象可能是来自一个雕有奥古斯都骑着摩羯的多彩宝石浮雕,这个浮雕现藏于英国诺森伯兰郡阿尼克城堡。这件艺术品原本是枢机主教多梅尼科·格里曼尼的藏品,他在米开朗基罗绘制《创造亚当》时正好住在罗马,且有证据显示二人颇有交情。但也有说法称亚当的形象实际上是来自于洛伦佐·吉贝尔蒂同名作品中的亚当。此外,米开朗基罗的关于上帝与亚当互相向对方伸出手臂的创作灵感也许是来自中世纪圣诗《轻叩心扉之门》(Veni Creator Spiritus)。

四面楚歌的人是谁

“四面楚歌”的历史人物是项羽,男,唐宋典籍记载为周王族诸侯国项国后代,姬姓,项氏,名籍,字羽,泗水郡下相县(今江苏省宿迁市)人。秦朝末年政治家、军事家,楚国名将项燕的孙子。
项羽少时学书、剑皆无所成,然胸怀反秦大志。秦二世元年(前209年)九月,随项梁起兵会稽(治今江苏苏州),响应陈胜、吴广起义。陈胜死后,又领导反秦武装主力,拥立楚怀王之孙熊心为王。秦将章邯击赵时,奉怀王之命,以次将随上将军宋义率军救赵,因宋义行至安阳后按兵不动,遂于帐中斩之,然后亲自领兵救巨鹿,破釜沉舟,大败秦军主力。随后招降章邯,坑杀秦卒二十万,进军关中。时刘邦已先据咸阳,谋臣范增力劝项羽在鸿门宴上杀死刘邦,未能实现,与刘邦暂时达成和解,遂屠咸阳,杀秦王子婴,烧秦宫室,掳掠货宝。公元前206年二月,分封诸侯,以刘邦为汉王,自立为西楚霸王,定都彭城(今江苏徐州)。不久,田荣、陈余于齐、赵等地举兵反楚,刘邦乘机平定三秦,进逼西楚,楚汉之争随之爆发。项羽虽于战争前期取得胜利,但因分封诸侯,内部矛盾重重,加以战略决策失宜,军事形势日益不利,终被围困垓下,夜闻楚歌四起,以为汉军已得楚地,遂突围至乌江,自刎而死。
作为中国军事思想“兵形势”(兵家四势:兵形势、兵权谋、兵阴阳、兵技巧)的代表人物,项羽是一位以武力出众而闻名的武将。李晚芳评价“羽之神勇,千古无二”。